What is the Probiotic?
The term ''Probiotic'' means "for life" and the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2001 definition of probiotics is "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health beneﬁt on the host".
The term is used as an adjective of food containing these bacteria. Probiotics are consumed in two ways:
- for dietary supplements in the form of powder, liquid or tablet
- for foods fortified with probiotics
Human and animal intestines contain more than 100000 billion live bacteria, all of which together make up the intestinal flora. Many of these bacteria are very good for health. A class of bacteria known as probiotics through its growth and activity help to the balance of intestinal bacteria and prevent growth and proliferation of harmful bacteria. In addition, an important role plays in maintaining good health with the synthesis of essential substances such as vitamins, amino acids.
As noted, the so-called Probiotic that has Latin-Greek base means "for life". For the first time, the term was used by Lyle and Steel in 1965 to describe the effect of reinforcing the growth of a microorganism on other microorganisms. However, after it was proposed several definitions for probiotics, but due to the lack of any comprehensive definition none of them accepted.
For example, Parker used word of probiotic to description "food supplements of animals containing organisms and compounds that contribute to intestinal microbial balance in animals". The Fuller "a probiotic supplement containing live microbes that are effective at improving the intestinal microbial balance affects the host." A new definition of probiotics was suggested by Salmyn in 1998 that refers to "food composition containing live bacteria for animal consumption".
A relatively comprehensive definition was presented by the Federal Institute for Health Protection of consumers BgVV "Probiotics are certain live microorganisms that after reaching the intestine they exert positive effects". But its modern sense refers to living microorganisms that strengthen and support the balance of beneficial bacteria living in the digestive tract.
The World Health Organization's (WHO) 2001 definition of probiotics is "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health beneﬁt on the host". More consumers know probiotics as foods that are live as products used in food material and products for improving human and animal health. Sometimes in business literature the term "probiotic" is used for foods containing these bacteria.
Although most natural foods that are daily consumed contain varying amounts of microorganisms, more foods aren’t probiotic because there are difference between these foods and probiotic products. During the second half of the nineteenth century, early scientific studies related to the presence of microorganisms in human and animal bodies to assess the negative effects them. Esherick used Microbiota word (Microbiota) to describe microorganisms living in the body in 1885.
The use of probiotics
As mentioned earlier, probiotics are living organisms that balance intestinal microbial flora as a result beneficial effects apply on the health of the host. Excessive use of Antibiotics causes widespread antibiotic resistance. At the moment, the role of probiotics as a natural agent for the prevention and treatment of many infectious diseases has been highlighted and there is a special attention with use of probiotics in increasing the level of public health.
Probiotics are widely used in the treatment of infectious gastroenteritis, diarrhea caused by antibiotics, reducing the severity and duration of symptoms of irritable bowel, inflammatory bowel disease and infection of Helicobacter. Probiotics is one of the advanced topics in Biotechnology. Increasing research centers and articles and selling probiotic products indicate their importance in the health field.
Thus the society need to probiotic products (in contrast to other drugs) is unlimited and nutritional values in addition to their therapeutic effects cause use them even with other drugs. A complex of materials that doesn't present in one type of forage should was mixed to create conditions of economic exploitation of livestock and poultry. A combination contains a complex of food stuffs that is able to provide all of the elements and essential materials and it contains a certain amount of materials such as cereals like wheat, barley, corn and bran, beet pulp, corn gluten, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, sun flower meal, bagasse, vegetable oil, di-calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, salt, antioxidants and vitamin supplement used in livestock and poultry diet.
There are the variety of weather, materials, type of materials, special weight of primary materials, percentages of difference materials and friction coefficient, type of packaging, carting and size in feed additives production process in livestock and poultry. Livestock and poultry nutrient requirements aren’t fully provided by utilization of different grains, oilseed meals and some specific materials as a supplement must be added to their diet.
The supplements include a variety of allowable vitamins, minerals, nutrients and additives added to livestock and poultry diet. Probiotics that are livestock and poultry food supplements are one of the positive achievements of researcher. Probiotics are microbial food supplements that play an important role against pathogens by intestinal microbial balance and increasing host defense capabilities (livestock, poultry, etc.).
Researchers have shown that feeding hens with probiotics improve egg production (according day chicken), daily consumption of food, and the weight and size of eggs. Probiotic bacteria play an important role with the ability to change the intestinal micro flora in animal and human body. Not only the microorganisms don’t develop disease but also prevent growth and replication of pathogens in gastrointestinal and cause increasing useful micro flora in gastrointestinal.
The action mechanism of probiotics
1. preservation of beneficial microbial population in the gut
a.Antagonist activity: Through the production of compounds such as bacteriocins, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide which inhibits the growth of pathogenic bodies is the digestive system
b.Competitive exclusion: Competition for nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and minerals) and competition for binding sites
2.Increased food intake and improve digestion
3.Change bacterial metabolism
a. Increase the activity of digestive enzymes
b.Reducing the enzymes secreted by pathogenic bacteria
c.Reduce the urease activity and the production of ammonia in the excretion and floor
4.stimulating the immune system
5.neutralize toxins in the gut
Types of probiotics
Probiotic bacteria used in livestock and poultry industry are divided into two groups of producing lactic acid and Non-lactic. The activities of these bacteria in intestine cause production of lactic acid and thus decreasing pH in intestinal environment and so inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria including bacterial family such as E.coli and Salmonella. Bacteria used as probiotic are often families of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Bacillus.
Non-bacterial probiotics, yeast and fungi, can be divided into two groups. Activities of these two probiotics are similar. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae are respectively yeast and fungi that are widely used in the production of probiotics. Animal responses to Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commonly similar.
Forms of probiotic in the market
Probiotics are in different forms like powder, batter, capsule, liquid and/or morsel of food in the market.
The introduction of products of the Mahan Company
The company product is Probiotic supplements for use in aquatic, livestock and poultry diet or water. Our products are water soluble or feed grade according to product type in 500 gr and 5 kg Packages.